Translating high quality research specific to better design and building practice

Research Library

The HMinfo Research Library contains an in-depth collection of materials on home modifications and related subjects.

The Research Library does not lend books and other items. Under special circumstances, requests to use the library may be made by emailing .

Library Search


Static friction properties between human palmar skin and five grabrail materials


Author: O'Meara, D. M., Smith, R. M.
Type: Journal Article
Year: 2001


The purpose of this study was to investigate the static friction properties between human palmar skin and five grabrail materials (chrome, stainless steel, power-coated steel, textured aluminium and knurled steel) for dry, wet and soapy hands. Thirty subjects (15 female, 15 male) participated in this study, their ages ranging from 19 to 45 years with a mean age of 28 years. The normal force, friction force, and coefficient of static friction were determined by measuring three-dimensional forces while slipping the palm of the hand over the surface of a grabrail. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that gender, age, hand size and trial effect had no significant influence (p>0.05) on these results. The coefficient of friction (p<0.001) and friction force (p<0.001) were significantly lower when the hand was soapy than when it was dry or wet. The normal force applied when the hand was soapy was significantly greater (p<0.001) than when it was dry or wet. No significant difference was found between dry and wet hands. The two textured materials displayed superior friction properties when the hand was soapy, while the smooth materials performed best when the hand was dry.

Further Details

Publish Dates: September 15
Pages: 973-988
Volume: 44
Issue: 11
Accession Number: September, 2011
Electronic Resource Number: 10.1080/00140130110074882
Research Notes: Electronic copy added 03/09/2013
Keywords: productrailModification
Reads: 184