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An ergonomic approach to public squatting-type toilet design

Applied Ergonomics

Author: Dengchuan, C., Manlai, Y.
Year: 1998
Type: Journal Article


This paper reports a case study on public squatting-type toilet design, which was undertaken with a special emphasis on ergonomic considerations. A field survey on the use of public toilets In Taipei reveals that almost half of the subjects take a non-sitting posture while using the sitting-type public toilets and 86% of the subjects agreed that the squatting-type public toilets better satisfy sanitary requirements. An experiment was conducted to determine relevant anthropometric data for a redesign of squatting-type toilets. One of the variables studied was the effect of the footstep slope on squatting comfort. A total of 80 subjects as tested on four footstep ~Iopes: 0°, 15°,30° and 45°. Their heart rates were mesured before and after the test, and their subjective evaluations of squatting comfort were also recorded. The 15° slope was found to be preferred. These findings were then used In design development "here mock-ups were presented to subjects for evaluation, then modifications were made and further tests conducted for verification. The result shows that the ergonomic approach Is feasible recommended to be adopted In the process of product design of such facilities.

Further Details

Full Title Applied Ergonomics
Pages 147
Volume 29
Issue 2
Accession Number July, 2013
Research Notes Electronic copy added 24/07/2013
Keywords public toiletssquatting-type toiletsSquat toiletdesignergonomicsproduct design

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